PD’s Book

Christensen, Peter. Germany and the Ottoman Railways: Art, Empire, and Infrastructure. Yale University Press, 2017.

The complex political and cultural relationship between the German state and the Ottoman Empire is explored through the lens of the Ottoman Railway network, its architecture, and material culture. With lines extending from Bosnia to Baghdad to Medina, the Ottoman Railway Network (1868–1919) was the pride of the empire and its ultimate emblem of modernization—yet it was largely designed and bankrolled by German corporations. This exemplifies a uniquely ambiguous colonial condition in which the interests of Germany and the Ottoman Empire were in constant flux. German capitalists and cultural figures sought influence in the Near East, including access to archaeological sites such as Tell Halaf and Mshatta. At the same time, Ottoman leaders and laborers urgently pursued imperial consolidation. Germany and the Ottoman Railways explores the impact of these political agendas as well as the railways’ impact on the built environment. Relying on a trove of previously unpublished archival materials, including maps, plans, watercolors, and photographs, author Peter H. Christensen also reveals the significance of this major infrastructure project for the budding disciplines of geography, topography, art history, and archaeology.

Art History and Architectural History Literature

Akcan, Esra. Architecture in Translation: Germany, Turkey and the Modern House. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.

Postulates a new lexicon for architectural transformation derived from the specific case of German–Turkish intellectual and architectural exchanges in the period after World War I period. Akcan’s articulation suggests a useful paradigm for written analysis of the architectural morphologies in this study.

Bohi, Charles. Canadian National’s Western Stations. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 2002.

A detailed guide on the construction of the rail stations under consideration in this study; includes thorough illustrations of the life cycle of these structures over time.

Bradwin, Edmond. The Bunkhouse Man: Life and Labour in the Northern Work Camps. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Comparison of labor practices across Canadian settlements, both within and outside of railway construction.

Brown, Ron. Rails Across the Prairies: The Railway Heritage of Canada’s Prairie Provinces. Toronto: Dundum Press, 2012.

Discusses settlement and development of the Canadian prairie. Useful historical contextualization of population shifts, as well as identification of station types.

Çelik, Zeynep. Empire, Architecture, and the City: French–Ottoman Encounters, 1830–1914. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008.

A material and architectural examination of the impact of the French encounter on Ottoman architecture, with useful historical context and some consideration of the railways.

Faroqhi, Suraiya. Artisans of Empire: Crafts and Craftspeople under the Ottomans. London: I.B. Tauris, 2009.

Study of the history, evolution, and structure of artisanal groups in Ottoman culture. This work is crucial for understanding the nature of groups in this study who are not part of the written records and whose actions must be interpolated through the technological means proposed in this project.

Holdsworth, Deryck W. and Donald Kerr, eds. Historical Atlas of Canada, Vol. 3: Addressing the Twentieth Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.

Extensive graphic representations and plates illustrating shifts in population, trade, and urban development. Includes demographic information pertaining to rail development and use.

Meeks, Carroll Louis Vanderslice. The Railroad Station: An Architectural History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1956.

Key study of the morphology of train stations.

Palmer, Howard. Patterns of Prejudice: A History of Nativism in Alberta. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982.

Considers the Canadian government and railway authorities’ initiation of a far-reaching immigration recruitment program to provide adequate labor for the country’s rail expansion.

Yavuz, Mehmet. “Eine vergleichende Studie über den Bahnbau und die Bahnhofsarchitektur der Anatolischen Bahnen und der Bagdadbahn mit ihren Vorbildern im Deutschen Reich.” PhD diss., Ruhr Universität Bochum, 2005.

Descriptive dissertation on the architecture of the Anatolian and Baghdad Railways.

Zandi-Sayek, Sibel. Ottoman İzmir: The Rise of a Cosmopolitan Port, 1840–1880. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.

Key study on the urban morphology of the Ottoman modernization in the city of Izmir.


Literature Related to Biometrics, Computation, Image Processing, and 3D Modeling

Ajana, Bithaj. Governing Through Biometrics: The Biopolitics of Identity. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Discussion of the ethical implications of biometrics software with some theoretical implications for this study, particularly as they relate to the ability for pixel-based data to function as empirical evidence.

Artal-Isbrand, Paula, and Philip Klausmeyer. “Evaluation of the Relief Line and the Contour Line on Greek Red-Figure Vases Using Reflectance Transformation Imaging and Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy.” Studies in Conservation 58, no. 4 (October 2013): 338–59.

This study has the greatest methodological similarity to the proposed project, but in the context of analyzing Greek vases.

Barton, Justin. “3D Laser Scanning and the Conservation of Earthen Architecture: A Case Study at the UNESCO World Heritage Site, Merv, Turkmenistan.” World Archaeology 41, no. 3 (September 2009): 489–504.

Another study with methodological similarities and a very successful critical employment of 3D scanning.

Doersch, Carl, Saurabh Singh, Abhinav Gupta, Josef Sivic, and Alexei A. Efros. 2012. What makes Paris look like Paris? ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 101 (July 2012), 9 pages. DOI=10.1145/2185520.2185597

A study algorithmically identifying and comparing architectural aspects of Paris mined from Google streetview captures so as to identify the city’s spatial DNA.

Gates, Kelly A. Our Biometric Future: Facial Recognition Technology and the Culture of Surveillance. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

General theoretical discussion of facial recognition technology.

Wachowiak, Melvin J., and Basiliki Vicky Karas. “3D Scanning and Replication for Museum and Cultural Heritage Publications.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 48, no. 2 (Summer 2009): 141–58.

A study of the cultural applications of 3D scanning.


Further Relevant Works


Adam, G. Mercer. The Canadian North-West: Its History and Its Troubles from the Early Days of the Fur-Trade to the Era of the Railway and the Settler. Toronto: Rose Publishing Company, 1885.

Ahmadabian, A. H., S. Robson, J. Boehm, M. Shortis, K. Wenzel, D. Fritsch, “A Comparison of Dense Matching Algorithms for Scaled Surface Reconstruction Using Stereo Camera Rigs,” ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Vol. 78 (2013): 157-67.

Artibisse, Alan F. J., “City-Building in the Canadian West: From Boosterism to Corporatism,” Journal of Canadian Studies 17, no. 3 (1982): 35-44.

Bickersteth, J. Burgon. The Land of Open Doors, Being Letters from Western Canada. London: Wells Gardner, Darton & Co., 1914.

Boisey, Paul, “The Urbanization of the Canadian Prairies, 1871-1916,” Histoire Sociale/Social History 8 (1975): 77-101.

Boulaasal, H., C. Chevrier, T. Landes, “From Laser Data to Parametric Models: Towards an Automatic Method for Building Façade Modelling” in M. Ioannides, D. Fellner, A. Georgopoulos, D. Hadjimitsis, eds., Digital Heritage . Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, 2010. 42-55.

Chalmers, A., H. Rushmeier, eds. “Computer Graphics in Art History and Archaeology,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 22, No. 5 (September/October 2002).

Cheng, H. M., “Workflows of 3d Digitizing Heritage Monuments,” in J.A. Munoz, ed., Laser Scanner Technology (2012). InTech.

Croci, G., The Conservation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage . Southampton, UK: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1998.

Cruikshank, Ken, Close Ties: Railways, Government, and the Board of Railway Commissioners, 1851-1933. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1991.

Currie, Archibald W., The Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1957.

D’Ayala, D., E. Fodde, eds., Structural Analysis of Historic Construction: Preserving Safety and Significance. Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historic Construction, SAHC08, 2-4 July 2008, Bath UK. Boca Ration: CRC Press, 2008.

Dawson, Carl A. and Eva Younge, Pioneering in the Prairie Provinces: The Social Side of the Settlement Process. Toronto: Macmillan, 1940.

De Glazebrook, G. P. T. A History of Transportation in Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1938.

Eagle, John A., The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Development of Western Canada, 1806-1914. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1989.

England, Robert, “Ethnic Settlers in Western Canada: Reminiscences of a Pioneer,” Canadian Ethnic Studies 8 (1976): 18-33.

Faro Technologies, Faro Focus 3D . Lake Mary: Faro Technologies, 2012.

Forte, M., A Siliotti, eds., Virtual Archaeology . New York: Abrams, 1997.

Gagan, David P., ed. Prairie Perspectives: Papers of the Western Canadian Studies Conference. Toronto: Hold, Rinehart and Winston Limited, 1970.

Guidi, G., M. Russo, D. Angheleddu, “3D Survey and Virtual Reconstruction of Archaeological Sites,” Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Vol. 1 (2014): 55-69.

Haddad, N.A., “From Ground Surveying to 3D Laser Scanner: A Review of Techniques used for Spatial Documentation of Historic Sites,” Journal of King Saud University, Engineering Sciences, Vol. 23 (2011): 109-118.

Hryniuk, Stella M. and Neil G. McDonald, “The Schooling Experience of Ukrainians in Manitoba, 1896-1916,” in Nancy Sheehan, et al, eds., Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History. Calgary, ON: Destselig, 1986. 155-73.

Innis, Harold A., A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971.

Kamgar-Parsi, B., “Algorithms for Matching 3D Line Sets. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,” IEEE Transactions, Vol. 26 (2004):  582-93.

Keefer, Thomas C., The Philosophy of Railroads and Other Essays. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.

Lam, Elsa, Wilderness Nation: Building Canada’s Railway Landscapes, 1885-1929. PhD diss. New York: Columbia University, 2011.

Lehr, John. Ukrainian Vernacular Architecture in Alberta. Alberta Culture Historic Sites Service: 1976.

Loewen, Royden and Gerald Friesen, Immigrants in Prairie Cities: Ethnic Diversity in Twentieth-Century Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

MacKay, Donald, The People’s Railway: A History of Canadian National. Vancouver, BC and Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 1992.

Martynowych, Orest T. The Ukrainian Bloc Settlement in East Central Alberta, 1890-1930. Alberta Culture Historic Sites Service: 1985.

Messamore, Barbara, ed. Canadian Migration Patterns from Britain and North America. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2004.

Nahachwesky, Andriy. Ukrainian Dug-Out Dwellings in East Central Alberta. Alberta Culture Historic Sites Service: 1985.

Petryshyn, Jaroslav, Peasants in the Promised Land: Canada and the Ukrainians, 1891-1914. Toronto: James Lorimer, 1985.

Pittalis, M., Constantinos Christou, “Types of Reasoning in 3D Geometry Thinking and Their Relation with Spatial Ability,” Educational Studies in Mathemtatics, Vol. 75, No. 2 (November 2010): 191-212.

Shen, L., H. Farid, M. Mcpeek, “Modeling Three-Dimensional Morphological Structures Using Spherical Harmonics,” Evolution, Vol. 63, No. 4 (April 2009): 1003-1016.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Eds. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. 271-313.

Tuck, Joseph Hugh. Canadian Railways and the International Brotherhoods: Labor Organization in the Railway Running Trades in Canada, 1865-1914. PhD diss. London, ON: University of Western Ontario, 1976.

Vilbrandt, C., G. Pasko, A. Pasko, P.A. Fayolle, T. Vilbrandt, J.R. Goodwin, J.M. Goodwin, T.L. Kunii, “Cultural Heritage Preservation Using Constructive Shape Modeling,” Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 23 (2004): 25-41.

Warkentin, John. The Western Interior of Canada: A Record of Geographical Discovery, 1612-1917. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1964.

Zaslow, Morris. The Opening of the Canadian North, 1870-1914. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1971.

Zvietcovich, F., B. Castañeda, R. Perucchio, R. Morales, S. Uceda, “A Methodology for Updating 3D Solid Models of Complex Monumental Structures Based on Local Point-Based Meshes,” Proceedings of the Digital Heritage International Congress, Marseille, France (2013): 7-14.